FAO The Way forward for Meals and Agriculture: Tendencies and Challenges (2017); https://reliefweb.int/report/world/future-food-and-agriculture-trends-and-challenges
Kah, M., Tufenkji, N. & White, J. C. Nano-enabled methods to boost crop vitamin and safety. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 532–540 (2019). This assessment summarizes present challenges in crop vitamin and safety, and the doable options supplied by nanotechnology.
Adisa, I. O. et al. Latest advances in nano-enabled fertilizers and pesticides: a important assessment of mechanisms of motion. Environ. Sci. Nano 6, 2002–2030 (2019).
Kah, M., Kookana, R. S., Gogos, A. & Bucheli, T. D. A important analysis of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers towards their typical analogues. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 677–684 (2018). A important analysis of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides towards their typical analogues signifies that lack of knowledge on the efficacy and environmental affect of nanoagrochemicals beneath area circumstances is a important information hole.
Camara, M. C. et al. Improvement of stimuli-responsive nano-based pesticides: rising alternatives for agriculture. J. Nanobiotechnology 17, 100 (2019).
Singh, H. et al. Latest advances within the purposes of nano-agrochemicals for sustainable agricultural growth. Environ. Sci. Course of. Impacts 23, 213–239 (2021).
Mitter, N. et al. Clay nanosheets for topical supply of RNAi for sustained safety towards plant viruses. Nat. Crops 3, 16207 (2017).
Well being Canada Coverage Assertion on Well being Canada’s Working Definition for Nanomaterial (2011); https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/providers/science-research/reports-publications/nanomaterial/policy-statement-health-canada-working-definition.html
Miernicki, M., Hofmann, T., Eisenberger, I., Kammer, Fvonder & Praetorius, A. Authorized and sensible challenges in classifying nanomaterials in line with regulatory definitions. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 208–216 (2019). The present limitations of the European Union definitions for ‘nanomaterial’ are outlined together with suggestions for a extra coherent strategy to classifying nanomaterials for regulatory functions.
US EPA Management of Nanoscale Supplies beneath the Poisonous Substances Management Act (2015); https://www.epa.gov/reviewing-new-chemicals-under-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca/control-nanoscale-materials-under
Boverhof, D. R. et al. Comparative evaluation of nanomaterial definitions and security analysis concerns. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 73, 137–150 (2015).
Etheridge, M. L. et al. The large image on nanomedicine: the state of investigational and accepted nanomedicine merchandise. Nanomedicine 9, 1–14 (2013).
Kah, M. Nanopesticides and nanofertilizers: rising contaminants or alternatives for threat mitigation? Entrance. Chem. 3, 64 (2015).
Bocca, B. et al. Nanopesticides: physico-chemical characterization by a mix of superior analytical methods. Meals Chem. Toxicol. 146, 111816 (2020).
Tilman, D., Cassman, Okay. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. & Polasky, S. Agricultural sustainability and intensive manufacturing practices. Nature 418, 671–677 (2002).
Hardy, A. et al. Steering on threat evaluation of the applying of nanoscience and nanotechnologies within the meals and feed chain: Half 1, human and animal well being. EFSA J. 16, e05327 (2018). This European Meals Security Authority steering doc gives detailed data on the bodily chemical characterization and toxicological testing required for threat evaluation of the affect of nanoscience and nanotechnology purposes within the meals and feed chain on animal and human well being.
Kookana, R. S. et al. Nanopesticides: guiding rules for regulatory analysis of environmental dangers. J. Agric. Meals Chem. 62, 4227–4240 (2014). This paper presents the framework for ecological threat evaluation of nanopesticides.
Walker, G. W. et al. Ecological threat evaluation of nano-enabled pesticides: a perspective on drawback formulation. J. Agric. Meals Chem. 66, 6480–6486 (2018). This angle article summarizes the related concerns for drawback formulation within the ecological threat evaluation of nanoenabled pesticides.
ISO ISO/TR 19057:2017 (2017); https://www.iso.org/cms/render/dwell/en/websites/isoorg/contents/knowledge/normal/06/38/63836.html
Gubala, V. et al. Engineered nanomaterials and human well being: half 1. Preparation, functionalization and characterization (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 90, 1283–1324 (2018).
OECD Essential Points on Threat Evaluation of Manufactured Nanomaterials (Sequence on the Security of Manufactured Nanomaterials No. 33) (2012); http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2012)8&doclanguage=en
Scientific Committee on Shopper Security (SCCS) Steering on the Security Evaluation of Nanomaterials in Cosmetics SCCS/1611/19 (Publications Workplace, 2019).
Grieger, Okay. et al. Greatest practices from nano-risk evaluation related for different rising applied sciences. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 998–1001 (2019).
Worldwide Programme on Chemical Security (IPCS) Rules for the Evaluation of Dangers to Human Well being from Publicity to Chemical compounds (1999); http://www.inchem.org/paperwork/ehc/ehc/ehc210.htm
EC Fee Regulation (EU) No 284/2013 of 1 March 2013 Setting Out the Information Necessities for Plant Safety Merchandise, in Accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council Regarding the Putting of Plant Safety Merchandise on the Market (2013); https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEXpercent3A32013R0284
US EPA Information Necessities for Pesticide Registration (2013); https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/data-requirements-pesticide-registration
EC Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 Regarding the Putting of Plant Safety Merchandise on the Market and Repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC (2009).
EC Fee Regulation (EU) No 283/2013 of 1 March 2013 Setting out the Information Necessities for Lively Substances, in Accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council Regarding the Putting of Plant Safety Merchandise on the Market (Textual content with EEA Relevance) (2013).
Well being Canada. Regulatory Directive (DIR2005-01) Pointers for Growing a Toxicological Database for Chemical Pest Management Merchandise. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/providers/consumer-product-safety/reports-publications/pesticides-pest-management/policies-guidelines/regulatory-directive/2005/developing-toxicological-database-chemical-pest-control-products-dir2005-01.html (2005).
Shakiba, S. et al. Rising investigator collection: polymeric nanocarriers for agricultural purposes: synthesis, characterization, and environmental and organic interactions. Environ. Sci. Nano 7, 37–67 (2020).
Ma, C. et al. Superior materials modulation of dietary and phytohormone standing alleviates harm from soybean sudden demise syndrome. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 1033–1042 (2020).
Avramescu, M.-L., Chénier, M., Palaniyandi, S. & Rasmussen, P. E. Dissolution conduct of metallic oxide nanomaterials in cell tradition medium versus distilled water. J. Nanoparticle Res. 22, 222 (2020).
Koltermann-Jülly, J. et al. Abiotic dissolution charges of 24 (nano)types of 6 substances in comparison with macrophage-assisted dissolution and in vivo pulmonary clearance: grouping by biodissolution and transformation. NanoImpact 12, 29–41 (2018).
Well being Canada Steering for Waiving or Bridging of Mammalian Acute Toxicity Checks for Pesticides (2015); https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/providers/consumer-product-safety/reports-publications/pesticides-pest-management/policies-guidelines/guidance-waiving-bridging-mammalian-acute-toxicity-tests-pesticides.html
US EPA Bridging or Waiving Information Necessities (2020); https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/bridging-or-waiving-data-requirements
Gimeno-Benito, I., Giusti, A., Dekkers, S., Haase, A. & Janer, G. A assessment to assist the derivation of a worst-case dermal penetration worth for nanoparticles. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 119, 104836 (2021).
Beloqui, A., des Rieux, A. & Préat, V. Mechanisms of transport of polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles throughout the intestinal barrier. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 106, 242–255 (2016).
Paranjpe, M. & Müller-Goymann, C. C. Nanoparticle-mediated pulmonary drug supply: a assessment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, 5852–5873 (2014).
Steinhäuser, Okay. G. & Sayre, P. G. Reliability of strategies and knowledge for regulatory evaluation of nanomaterial dangers. NanoImpact 7, 66–74 (2017).
Rasmussen, Okay., Rauscher, H., Kearns, P., González, M. & Riego Sintes, J. Growing OECD check tips for regulatory testing of nanomaterials to make sure mutual acceptance of check knowledge. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 104, 74–83 (2019).
Gao, X. & Lowry, G. V. Progress in the direction of standardized and validated characterizations for measuring physicochemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials related to nano well being and security dangers. NanoImpact 9, 14–30 (2018). Progress in the direction of standardization and validation of strategies to characterize the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of nanomaterials for threat evaluation functions is reviewed.
Johnston, L. J., Gonzalez-Rojano, N., Wilkinson, Okay. J. & Xing, B. Key challenges for analysis of the protection of engineered nanomaterials. NanoImpact 18, 100219 (2020).
Rasmussen, Okay. et al. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials—characterisation and related strategies. An outlook based mostly on the OECD Testing Programme. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 92, 8–28 (2018).
Sampathkumar, Okay., Tan, Okay. X. & Bathroom, S. C. J. Growing nano-delivery techniques for agriculture and meals purposes with nature-derived polymers. iScience 23, 101055 (2020).
Liang, D. et al. Degradation of polyacrylate within the outside agricultural soil measured by FTIR-PAS and LIBS. Polymers 10, 1296 (2018).
Zumstein, M. T. et al. Biodegradation of artificial polymers in soils: monitoring carbon into CO2 and microbial biomass. Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9024 (2018).
OECD Evaluation of Biodurability of Nanomaterials and their Floor Ligands (Sequence on the Security of Manufactured Nanomaterials No. 86 (2018); http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2018)11&doclanguage=enThis OECD report summarizes present in vitro and in vivo strategies to measure biodurability of nanomaterials in addition to the results of floor coatings and ligands on dissolution and degradation processes.
OECD Steering Doc for the Testing of Dissolution and Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials and the Use of Information for Additional Environmental Testing and Evaluation Methods (2020); http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2020)9&doclanguage=en
OECD Take a look at No. 106: Adsorption–Desorption Utilizing a Batch Equilibrium Methodology (Organisation for Financial Co-Operation and Improvement, 2000).
D’Souza, S. A assessment of in vitro drug launch check strategies for nano-sized dosage types. Adv. Pharm. 2014, e304757 (2014).
European Nanomedicine Characterisation Laboratory (EUNCL) Verification of Anticipated Lipid Composition in Nanomedical Managed Launch Methods by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry EUNCL-PCC-032 (2017).
Gioria, S. et al. Are current normal strategies appropriate for the analysis of nanomedicines: some case research. Nanomedicine 13, 539–554 (2018).
Kah, M., Weniger, A.-Okay. & Hofmann, T. Impacts of (nano)formulations on the destiny of an insecticide in soil and penalties for environmental publicity evaluation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50, 10960–10967 (2016).
Kah, M., Walch, H. & Hofmann, T. Environmental destiny of nanopesticides: sturdiness, sorption and photodegradation of nanoformulated clothianidin. Environ. Sci. Nano 5, 882–889 (2018).
Zhang, P. et al. Nanomaterial transformation within the soil–plant system: implications for meals security and utility in agriculture. Small 16, 2000705 (2020).
Marques, M. R. C., Loebenberg, R. & Almukainzi, M. Simulated organic fluids with doable utility in dissolution testing. Dissolution Technol. 18, 15–28 (2011).
Oberdörster, G. et al. Rules for characterizing the potential human well being results from publicity to nanomaterials: components of a screening technique. Half. Fibre Toxicol. 2, 8 (2005).
OECD Developments in Delegations on the Security of Manufactured Nanomaterials (2019); https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2019)11&doclanguage=en
OECD Take a look at No. 428: Pores and skin Absorption: In Vitro Methodology (2004); https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/setting/test-no-428-skin-absorption-in-vitro-method_9789264071087-en
EFSA. Steering on dermal absorption. EFSA J. 10, 2665 (2012).
Singh, N., Wills, J. W. & Doak, S. H. in Nanotoxicology 248–275 (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017). Some great benefits of 3D cell tradition fashions for in vitro nanotoxicity testing are reviewed, together with an outline of obtainable 3D fashions to imitate the physiological setting of a wide range of tissues and organs.
OECD Take a look at No. 439: In Vitro Pores and skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Dermis Take a look at Methodology (2020); https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/setting/test-no-439-in-vitro-skin-irritation-reconstructed-human-epidermis-test-method_9789264242845-en
OECD Take a look at No. 431: In Vitro Pores and skin Corrosion: Reconstructed Human Dermis (RHE) Take a look at Methodology (2014); https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/setting/test-no-431-in-vitro-skin-corrosion-reconstructed-human-epidermis-rhe-test-method_9789264264618-en
Wills, J. W. et al. Genetic toxicity evaluation of engineered nanoparticles utilizing a 3D in vitro pores and skin mannequin (EpiDermTM). Half. Fibre Toxicol. 13, 50 (2016).
Barosova, H., Drasler, B., Petri-Fink, A. & Rothen-Rutishauser, B. Multicellular human alveolar mannequin composed of epithelial cells and first immune cells for hazard evaluation. J. Vis. Exp. 159, e61090 (2020).
Chortarea, S. et al. Repeated publicity to carbon nanotube-based aerosols doesn’t have an effect on the useful properties of a 3D human epithelial airway mannequin. Nanotoxicology 9, 983–993 (2015).
Barosova, H. et al. Use of EpiAlveolar lung mannequin to foretell fibrotic potential of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. ACS Nano 14, 3941–3956 (2020).
Willoughby, J. A. Predicting respiratory toxicity utilizing a human 3D airway (EpiAirwayTM) mannequin mixed with a number of parametric evaluation. Appl. Vitr. Toxicol. 1, 55–65 (2014).
Evans, S. J. et al. In vitro detection of in vitro secondary mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by engineered nanomaterials. Half. Fibre Toxicol. 16, 8 (2019).
Kämpfer, A. A. M. et al. Improvement of an in vitro co-culture mannequin to imitate the human gut in wholesome and diseased state. Toxicol. Vitr. 45, 31–43 (2017).
Ude, V. C., Brown, D. M., Stone, V. & Johnston, H. J. Utilizing 3D gastrointestinal tract in vitro fashions with microfold cells and mucus secreting skill to evaluate the hazard of copper oxide nanomaterials. J. Nanobiotechnol. 17, 70 (2019).
Clift, M. J. D. et al. A novel method to find out the cell sort particular response inside an in vitro co-culture mannequin through multi-colour circulation cytometry. Sci. Rep. 7, 434 (2017).
Modrzynska, J. et al. In vivo-induced dimension transformation of cerium oxide nanoparticles in each lung and liver doesn’t have an effect on long-term hepatic accumulation following pulmonary publicity. PLoS ONE 13, e0202477 (2018).
Take a look at No. 417: Toxicokinetics, OECD Pointers for the Testing of Chemical compounds Part 4 (OECD, 2010).
Toxicokinetics of Manufactured Nanomaterials: Report from the OECD Professional Assembly (OECD, 2016); http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=env/jm/mono(2016)24&doclanguage=en
Kah, M. & Kookana, R. Rising investigator collection: nanotechnology to develop novel agrochemicals: important points to think about within the international agricultural context. Environ. Sci.: Nano 7, 1867–1873 (2020).
Lowry, G. V., Avellan, A. & Gilbertson, L. M. Alternatives and challenges for nanotechnology within the agri-tech revolution. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 517–522 (2019).
Lombi, E., Donner, E., Dusinska, M. & Wickson, F. A One Well being strategy to managing the purposes and implications of nanotechnologies in agriculture. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 523–531 (2019).